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Cafe au lait - 1. Brewed coffee (or espresso) combined simultaneously, in equal portions, with steamed or hot milk. OR 2. Half coffee and half hot milk, but with regular coffee instead of espresso. The regular coffee should be brewed double strength.

Caf? Americano - Espresso diluted with an equal portion of hot water. You can get a regular coffee that tastes the same for about half the price.

Caf? Latte - Espresso with steamed milk and, in some shops, a small cap of foam. It has less foam than a cappuccino. Flavored lattes have a sweet, flavored syrup added to them.

Caf? Mocha - A term of no small controversy. In Eugene, ordering a mocha ought to get you a latte or a cappuccino with chocolate syrup or hot cocoa. On the other hand, it could get you a straight coffee with chocolate, or a funny look from the barista -- read the menu.

Caffeine - White, crystalline alkaloid, which occurs naturally in coffee beans, cocoa beans, and tea leaves, that stimulates the central nervous system.

Cappuccino - A coffee beverage made from espresso and topped with steamed milk and froth. More specifically, a shot of espresso with the remainder being 50 percent steamed milk and 50 percent milk foam. An alternative description is 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk, 1/3 foamed milk. But again, this depends on the maker. Many places use more steamed milk and less froth.

Caramel - This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the odor and flavor produced when caramelizing sugar without burning it. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe a burning note.

Caramelization - An action during coffee roasting that occurs when simple sugars in the bean are heated, resulting in a caramel color and flavor.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) - A gas formed in the cells o f the coffee bean as a natural byproduct of the roasting Process.

Cellulose material - Fibrous plant tissue constituting the major parts of the cell walls of the coffee bean; ac- counts for approximately 75% of the bean's total weight.

Cereal/Malty/Toast-like - This descriptor includes aromas characteristic of cereal, malt and toast. It includes scents such as the aroma and flavor of uncooked or roasted grain (including roasted corn, barley or wheat), malt extract and the aroma and flavor of freshly baked bread and freshly made toast. This descriptor has a common denominator, a grain-type aroma. The aromas in this descriptor were grouped together since tasters used these terms interchangeably when evaluating standards of each one.

Chaff - The remains of silver skin on green coffee beans that are released during roasting.

Chemical/Medicinal - This odor descriptor is reminiscent of chemicals, medicines and the smell of hospitals. This term is used to describe coffees having aromas such as rio flavor, chemical residues or highly aromatic coffees which produce large amounts of volatiles.

Cherries (berries) - The fruit of the coffee tree in which he the seeds (coffee beans).

Chocolate-like - This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the aroma and flavor of cocoa powder and chocolate (including dark chocolate and milk chocolate). It is an aroma that is sometimes referred to as sweet.

Cinnamon Roast - A light cinnamon brown color; generally has a pronounced nut-like flavor and a high level of coffee acidity.

Classic brewing - Brewing at a controlled level of extraction- removing 18% to 22% of the soluble material from roasted and ground coffee.

Coffea arabica - Arabica coffee - Coffea arabica was first described by Linnaeus in 1753. The best known varieties are 'Typica' and 'Bourbon' but from these many different strains and cultivars have been developed, such as caturra (Brazil, Colombia), Mundo Novo (Brazil), Tico (Central America), the dwarf San Ramon and the Jamaican Blue Mountain. The average arabica plant is a large bush with dark-green oval leaves. It is genetically different from other coffee species, having four sets of chromosomes rather than two. The fruits are oval and mature in 7 to 9 months; they usually contain two flat seeds (the coffee beans) - when only one bean develops it is called a peaberry. Arabica coffee is often susceptible to attack by pests and diseases, therefore resistance is a major goal of plant breeding programs. Arabica coffee is grown throughout Latin America, in Central and East Africa, in India and to some extent in Indonesia.

Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee - The term 'robusta' is actually the name of a widely grown variety of this species. It is a robust shrub or small tree growing up to 10 meters in height, but with a shallow root system. The fruits are rounded and take up to 11 months to mature; the seeds are oval in shape and smaller than those of C. arabica. Robusta coffee is grown in West and Central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia and to some extent in Brazil, where it is known as Conilon.

Coffea liberica - Liberica coffee - Liberica coffee grows as a large strong tree, up to 18 meters in height, with large leathery leaves. The fruits and seeds (beans) are also large. Liberica coffee is grown in Malaysia and in West Africa, but only very small quantities are traded as demand for its flavor characteristics is low.

Coffee contract - A legally binding agreement to make or take delivery of 37,500 pounds of washed arabica, from a specified country, during a designated future month, and at a market-derived price. This price governs the price of most arabica coffees throughout the world.

Coffee flavoring material - The gases, liquids, and solids removed from roasted and ground coffee when brewed that give the beverage its aromatic, taste, and tactile sensations.

Coffee Futures Market - The primary international marketplace for trading coffee futures contracts. Arabica futures contracts are traded on the New York Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa Exchange; robusta futures contracts are traded on the London Futures Exchange.

Colombian Milds - The ICO grouping for washed (wet- processed) arabica coffee produced in three countries (Colombia, Kenya and Tanzania). The name Colombian Milds can refer either to the coffee or to the country group, as is the case for all other ICO groupings.

Comparability - Examining pricing structure of similar restaurants in the market area in order to offer similar market-accepted prices.

Conductivity meter - A device -that determines coffee's soluble solids by measuring the increased conductivity (ionization) of water when coffee flavoring materials are added to it.

Crust (cap) - During a coffee cupping, the bed of coffee particles that rises to the brews surface when water is poured directly onto ground coffee.

Cupping method - The procedure by which individual cups of coffee are prepared according to established guidelines to assess the aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics of a sample of coffee.

References: International Coffee Organization, National Coffee Association, Oregon Daily Emerald, and the Specialty Coffee Association.


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